Macroscopic quantum dynamics and the problems of loading in Pd-H(D) systems


Antonella De Ninno,, Emilio Del Giudice, and Antonio Frattolillo. Agency for New Technologies Energy and Environment, Enrico Fermi 27, Frascati (Rome), 00044, Italy
It was discovered a long time ago that gases (in particular all the hydrogen isotopes) enter easily into metal matrices at up to very high stoichiometric ratios x= [H]/[M]. Palladium hydrides exhibit the most interesting features. Several findings point to the existence of a collective oscillation of hydrogen within the lattice. However, the existence of a strong cooperation among hydrogens is hardly understandable in the frame of the usual lattice dynamics. One should consider the possibility that a macroscopic ensemble of oscillating hydrogen could be described by an unique quantum state created by the collective dynamics. This point of view has been suggested in the last two decades in the frame of coherent quantum electrodynamics. We have achieved a clear indication that the Pd-H system in the β-phase is a macroscopic quantum system. As a consequence, the analysis of the Pd-H system in terms of coherent plasmas of H nuclei and Pd electrons is corroborated and new, interesting methods to reach high loading and inexpensive de-loading can emerge.