The use of “dry” CO2-based technologies for the enhanced fabrication of microelectronic devices


Ginger M. Denison1, Charles A Jones III1, James DeYoung2, Stephen M. Gross2, James McClain2, Luke A. Zannoni1, Evan Hicks1, Colin D. Wood3, Mary Kate Boggiano1, Pamela M. Visintin1, Carol A. Bessel4, Cynthia K. Schauer1, and Joseph M. DeSimone5. (1) Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #3290 Venable and Kenan Laboratories, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3290, (2) Micell Technologies, 7516 Precision Drive, Raleigh, NC 27617, (3) Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 3BX, United Kingdom, (4) Department of Chemistry, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085, (5) NSF Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina & Department of Chemical Engineering, NC State University, CB# 3290, 300 Venable & Kenan Laboratories, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3290
Water and solvent usage is intrinsic to the production of multi-layer integrated circuits. In addition to chemical consumption and the resultant emissions, issues involving image collapse and low k dielectric materials are becoming increasingly important as industry looks towards the implementation of high aspect ratio single layer 193 nm resists and next generation 157 nm lithography resists. There are several key unit operations that are responsible for a large fraction of the water, solvent, and chemical generation associated with integrated circuit manufacturing: a) cleaning and etching; b) lithography; c) dry organic and metal film deposition; and d) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). This lecture will focus on the fundamental research that will enable these ″wet″ processes based on the use of water and organic solvents to be replaced with ″dry″ processes based on the use of dense carbon dioxide (CO2).